Greenhouse Gases -
GREENHOUSE GASES (GHG)
Praxair has impacts on both direct GHG emissions, such as from the combustion of fuels and in producing hydrogen, as well as indirect GHG emissions, such as the emissions from a power plant to provide the electricity we use. While Praxair has made great gains in our efficiency of GHG emitted to product produced, our overall GHG emissions have been increasing recently due to new plants coming on-line.
GHG EMISSIONS IN METRIC TONS OF CO2E
Energy Use -
Praxair is vigilant at managing its energy footprint and has a range of design and operational initiatives to reduce operational energy consumption. By the end of 2020, Praxair expects to see 8 million MWH in cumulative savings from a 2009 baseline.
Energy savings (electricity, natural gas, and fuel) are collected as part of the overall environmental savings reported per relevant sustainable productivity project. Total sustainable productivity in 2016 yielded savings equivalent to 400,000 MT of CO2e emissions. These projects provide energy savings from enhancing the energy efficiency of Praxair's buildings, processes and transportation fleet.
We track and report the amount of energy we obtain directly from fuel sources such as natural gas and oil used in boilers and process heaters, as well as diesel fuel we use for transportation. See the chart below.
|YEAR||DIRECT Energy in MILLION MWH|
We track and report energy use at facilities where we take direct responsibility for electrical and other energy costs, and at onsite facilities where we operate but our customers pay the utility costs.
|Year||Global Electricity/STEAM Purchased in millions of MWH|
Air Emissions -
We report global NOx, SO2 and VOC emissions. A significant proportion of NOx and SO2 emissions come from transportation activity and miles driven to deliver product. We continue to improve our logistics efficiency to reduce these emissions through various fuel efficiency measures and improved vehicle fuel combustion.
63% comes from hydrogen facilities and Air Separation Units (ASUs). Another 34% percent of NOx emissions come from product transportation in trucks. See the chart below for emissions per year.
|year||NOx Emissions in Metric Tons|
Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)
Since 2004, we have experienced a 67% overall decrease in SO2 emissions through 2015. This reduction is mostly attributed to the reduction of sulfur in transportation fuel with the implementation of low sulfur and ultra-low sulfur diesel that is being used more and more worldwide.
In late 2015, Praxair started up a new hydrogen plant at an oil refinery in India that uses refinery byproduct as a feedstock as well as a fuel. SO2 emissions from this plant in 2016 were 90 metric tons. The Praxair facility includes s desulphurization process to clean the feedstock for use in the plant's process. In 2016, Praxair removed about 1,034 MT of equivalent SO2 in the desulphurization process. If Praxair did not desulphurize the feedstock, it would typically be combusted in a flare or used as a fuel elsewhere in the refinery without going through a desulphuriaztion process, and the SO2 would have been emitted directly into the atmosphere. Total SO2 emissions are reported below.
|Year||SO2 Emissions in Metric Tons|
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
42% of VOC emissions at Praxair come from acetylene production and flammable gas cylinder filling, 30% from hydrogen facilities and 12% comes from Praxair driver emissions. See our yearly VOC emissions reported below.
|Year||direct voc Emissions in Metric Tons|
Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS)
We measure the quantity of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) contained in our equipment as well as any emissions to the atmosphere. We are aggressively pursuing opportunities to reduce the use and emission of ODSs through the use of alternative non-ODS substances, enhanced leak detection and repair programs for equipment that still use ODSs.
2016 ODS RELEASES IN METRIC TONNES
|ODS||Actual Amount||cfc-11 equivalent|
Waste & Recycling Management -
Praxair tracks hazardous and non-hazardous wastes by disposal method: landfill, recycling and other (incineration, etc.). The company's management metrics focus on reducing waste to landfill and increasing recycling; therefore, "other" waste in specific categories is not tracked. The mass of "other" waste in 2016 was about 10,800 metric tons. This is an increase of 1,800 metric tons from 2015. One reason for the increase is that when emptying specialty gas cylinders, the contents need to be incinerated before the cylinders can be recycled or disposed.
Total waste generated by Praxxair in 2016 was 82,100 metric tons (74,200 metric tons of non-hazardous waste and 7,900 metric tons of hazardous waste), an increase of 16 percent compared to 2015. This is partially due to an increase in lime disposal. Lime is generated as a co-product and is stored, sometimes over multiple years, before recycling or disposal.
Of the total waste generated in 2016, 83 percent was diverted from landfill either by recycling or repurposing. Of this Praxair estimates 34,000 metric tons were marketable (sold for repurposing/recycling). The amount of landfilled waste decreased from 9,000 metric tons in 2015 to 3,300 metric tons in 2016. The amount of waste Praxair recycled (marketable plus non-saleable) increased from 53,000 to 68,000 metric tons over the same period.
Waste is managed as part of Sustainable Productivity.
worldwide waste disposed of in metric tons
Water Use -
Praxair tracks and reports water withdrawals from municipal water, fresh surface water, fresh ground water and industrial/recycled water sources. We report waster usage for all sites where monthly use exceed 10,000 gallons/month (120,000 gallons/year); in 2016, this totaled 392 sites. Praxair's water management metric focuses on net fresh water usage: Municipal + surface water + ground water minus fresh water returned to surface water sources. Praxair does not discharge to ground water and does not include once-through, non-contact cooling water that is discharged to a municipal source. We have restated data for previous years based on this new definition (previously, our metric focused on total water withdrawal minus once-through, non-contact cooling water).
About 25 percent of the water Praxair uses is provided by customers. Praxair does not track the source of this water, but based on knowledge of the sites, Praxair assumes that half of the customer-supplied water is from municipal sources and half from fresh surface water sources.
Net fresh water use increased 16 percent from 2015. Worldwide production increased, six large plants were brought on-line in Europe, and a number of large plants that came on-llne late in 2015 experienced a full reporting year in 2016.
Praxair is vigilant about managing its water footprint and has a range of initiatives to reduce operational water use. For example, water use is measured as an environmental KPI in Praxair's sustainable productivity activity. in 2016, a subset of projects reported environmental savings, including over 236 million gallons (893,000 cubic meters) of water saved.
In 2016, surface water accounted for 80 percent (285.2 million cubic meters) of the total waste water withdrawn (including industrial/recycled water). The balance of 20 percent was procured from well waters, municipal sources/utilities, or other industrial sources. Some Praxair sites gather rainwater for reuse; this information is not collected for corporate reporting.
|year||water USE in million cubic meters|
Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) -
Each year, we report our total on-and off-site toxic releases for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Release Inventory (TRI). The 2012 spike is due to a significant catalyst change out event. In 2016, the majority of our releases (70%) consisted of ammonia which is used in the neutralization of NOx emissions. See the chart below for our total U.S. TRI releases in pounds per year.
|year||U.S. TRI ON-AND OFF-Site RELEASES (POUNDS)|